Economy of Scale vs. Economy of Means

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Pienza, Italy town gate

Pienza, Italy eastern gate - all images in this post are from Pienza

Guest Post by Frank Starkey

Note from Steve: Frank is the Town Founder of Longleaf, a new town in Pasco County, Florida. Frank and I were on the Seaside Pienza Institute trip to Pienza last fall, and over dinner one night, Frank laid out the compelling argument below. Since then, he has been kind enough to write it up for this post.

   Through the process of developing Longleaf we were regularly taken to the financial whipping post when factors beyond our control didn’t go as expected. I believe the reason the project was so vulnerable lay in an economic principal we pursued, the Economy of Scale (EoS).

street lamp on narrow street in Pienza, Italy with passage through building beyond to orange-lit street on the other side

   Modern development practice is predicated on mass-production models, which are based largely on EoS. The cost to manufacture a widget goes down when you make a large number of them because your costs are spread out among more “units.” Cheaper by the dozen; cheaper still by the million. And if your costs go down, profits can be assumed to go up, all things being equal. It’s a self-evident and unassailable economic principle, right?  But there are limits to its application, particularly in the speculative and complex world of real estate development.

   At Longleaf this principle told us that developing 200 lots at a time would mean lower per-unit costs for building those lots, and that building a 3-story mixed-use building would cost less per square foot than a 2-story one (much less a single-story, which was considered anti-urban in those earlier days of New Urbanism.) However, pursuing these lower per-unit costs we took on much higher total cost, which had to be financed. That meant we had to sell those “units” at a pretty fast clip or the debt service would not only eat up the economies we had eked out, but it could also eat up ALL our profits, and eventually us! Economy of Scale was a deal with the devil known as debt.

Pienza, Italy eave

   Being indentured to so much debt created a cascade of pressures that compromised better place-making: suppressing prices and appreciation, bending on architectural standards, overlooking key details in executing the public realm. It also consumed resources and attention we could have put to better use making a more beautiful and vital place, like fostering the civic realm or building more retail. (This isn’t to suggest Longleaf is a failure: quite the contrary, and its success as a place is a testament to the power of good urban design, in spite of things we could have done differently or better.)

shop on the Pienza, Italy town wall

   Houses aren’t widgets; development is not manufacturing; a town is not a factory. Human settlements are more like ecosystems, subject to the complexities of human nature at every scale: individuals, families, social groups, economic production and consumption, civic life, fashion, politics and governance – these are all endlessly varied and dynamic. What’s more, the physical context of “real estate” is, by definition, unique to each location. The internal and external forces that shape our built environments are in every way contrary to the purity of the assembly line. Mass-production development would be well suited to creating beehives, perhaps, but it is a poor tool for creating human habitats.

   OK, so if scale (and its attendant repetitiveness) is the problem, how does one argue with “economy,” particularly these days? I struggled a long time to figure out how we might build economically, without falling into the trap of the Economy of Scale. Following clues from how Robert and Daryl Davis developed Seaside, and looking at how traditional towns and cities came to be, I discovered that the underlying economic principle of authentic urbanism is the Economy of Means (EoM). In the days before massive capitalization and long-term debt, cities were built one building at a time. Likewise, in the days before mass-production, buildings were essentially built by hand. So, at a fundamental level, traditional cities were built by hand, or rather, LOTS of hands. And when you make something by hand, you naturally employ the Economy of Means.

street cafe in Pienza, Italy

   Everyone who has made something by hand understands and employs EoM intuitively. To the craftsperson it doesn’t make sense to purchase extra material, only to throw it away. It makes sense to build something that uses material and performs its function with the greatest efficiency.  It doesn’t make sense to construct something flimsy, only to have it break in short order; you want it to last.  And, since it’s going to last and serve as a reflection of its maker, it makes sense to make something beautifully, incorporating timeless principles of proportion, elegance, and appropriate embellishment. Finally, when you work by hand, you want to share knowledge with others doing the same thing, to make it easier on yourself.

Pienza, Italy cathedral front in fading evening light

   When many individuals employ EoM, a rich variety of techniques develops. So does a progressive, “living” tradition, as folks share knowledge about what works and what doesn’t.  Innovation, Adaptation, Variety, Tradition and Progress grow naturally out of EoM building, whereas EoS manufacturing stifles all of these. Cities built on EoM function in richly complex ways and as a result are enormously adaptive and resilient. Those manufactured with EoS are dead on arrival.

   The best-loved buildings and places we urbanists admire embody EoM, and it’s no accident they have proved to be durable, both physically and in people’s affections. This is instructive for those of us involved in the project of buildings and places, for whom a revived understanding of EoM will be especially useful in the new economic realities.

   Leave EoS to the widget manufacturers.

   ~Frank Starkey

Legacy Comments


Very important ideas, but only half of the equation. When the cost of capital exceeds EOS savings, it's rational to shift to economy of means AND incremental improvement. Specifically, when the time-value-of-money doesn't pencil out, it makes sense to save the money and apply it to the next incremental improvement, such as an addition.

Aug 16, 2012 2:22pm

Pia Kealey · University of Notre Dame

A good post and a great distinction. On another level, I would add that with its monetary and production focus, EoS tends to rob its products of life-affirming qualities. So in the 'we shape our buildings and thereafter they shape us' context, essential but immeasurable things can easily be lost.

Aug 17, 2012 1:38pm

Cliffton Chandler

I completely agree that an "Economy of Means" is both economically rational and psychologically appealing--since we intuitively grasp individuality through recognition of nuance. I do want to add that architectural "Economy of Scale" has one very important purpose. One that is difficult to keep in mind because it is so rarely in evidence in the current global culture--that purpose being; the manufacture and implementation of rapid deployment architectural solutions to the problem set created by catastrophic natural disasters. 
So while I recognize that the "benefits" of EoS architecture are a
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Aug 19, 2012 1:01pm

Josh J. Stewart

Excellent article by Frank Starkey. Outstanding comment Cliffton. Thank you for making me aware of it. True story - there were a few times when Frank would babysit for me. My Mom said I would throw a fit over being given a female babysitter. A guy I was ok with. I'm sure I. hhad good reasons, whatever a six or seven year gold's reasons are. Anyway, even that young as Frank would have been a teenager, he showed an amazing talent for architecture. How? We'd go outside, and Frank would build these remarkably accurate, detailed, model houses and buildings - out of clay we dug up from the ground. I would love it when the sun came out and baked those model structures. Making them stronger. We don't have much of any clay in Florida. We found some on the island where my parents built their house. I'm serious. Frank built things almost 30 years ago, from nothing but clay, I've never forgotten. - Josh J. Stewart

Aug 19, 2012 4:30pm


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